Steel is a composition of iron and carbon; however it is the mixture of carbon plus the level of impurities and alloying elements that are present in it which determines the grades of steel.
Most frequently steel grades contain only 0.1-0.25% carbon, though the carbon content in it can vary from 0.1-1.5%. Impurities such as magnesium, sulfur and phosphorous are usually present in the steel, though manganese have the beneficial effects, phosphorus and sulfur are pernicious to steel’s toughness and durableness.
Various types of steel are manufactured depending upon the requirement of properties for their application and different grading systems are used to differentiate them according to these properties.
Depending upon their chemical composition these can be differentiated into four groups.
Types of Steel: On the basis of carbon composition
Carbon steels: Carbon steel account for t 90% account for Carbon steels and they have trace of alloying materials in them. They can be further differentiated into 3 major types depending upon their carbon content.
- Mild Steels: Containing mild traces of carbon upto 0.3% only
- Medium Carbon steels: Which contain carbon in range beteen 0.3%-0.6%
- High Carbon Steels: Having carbon content more than 0.6%
Steels Alloy: These contain the alloying materials such as Magnesium, sulphur, phosphorous, and copper or chromium as well inform of impurities to improve their hardness, strength and resistance and make them more ductile, wieldable to other forms .
Stainless Steel: Alloying materials such as chromium is added to provide them more resistance to the corrosion. Depending upon the crystalline structure these can be again bifurcated into 3 types
- Non-magnetic Steel: Also called as Austenitic steel these are generally used in piping industry, kitchen utensil making and processing equipment, and are largely produced when compared with other forms usually contain 18% chromium, 8% nickel and 0.8% of carbon.
- Ferritic Steel: it is another form of stainless steel that cannot be hardened by heat treatment but it can be made strength full by giving the cold treatment also this contain the impurities such as 12-17% chromium, and 0.1% of carbon with minute amount of nickel in them.
Martensitic: are the magnetic and heat treatable steels which are generally employed in the manufacturing of cutting tools dentals and surgical and have the composition of 11-17% chromium, less than 0.4% nickel, and up to 1.2% carbon.
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